Session Notes

What We Will Learn Today

  1. “Magisterial Reformation” vs. Radical Reformation
  2. The Question of Authority
  3. Popular Culture in the 16th Century
  4. The Reformation of the Family


Session Three: Part One

“Magisterial Reformation” vs. Radical reformation

  1. Peasants/Radical Ref connection made too tight!
  2. The less conservative reformation
  3. Knights and Princes
    1. Not for the radical reformation
    2. Believed in the “Great chain of being”
    3. Upheld the status quo

Rural Reformation

  1. Sometimes hard to know what they believed, or what they wanted, so we look at what happened
  2. The Peasants War
    1. The church theologically and socially
    2. “This reformation”
  3. The 12 Articles
    1. Thomas Müntzer v. The church
    2. emphasized freedom
  4. Müntzer thought he could reconcile
  5. How conservative should the Reformation be?
    1. The tension between liberation and the status quo
  6. Müntzer and the Peasants would be seen as “radical reformers”
    1. were seen as going too fast

Question: What was too far?

  1. The Reformation heretofore would be Magisterial
  2. At Speyer in 1529
    1. Word “Protestant” coined
    2. Smalcald Articles written by Luther
    3. Catholics and reformers turned on


Session Three: Part Two

Magisterial Reformers distinguishing themselves from the Radicals- the Reformation would be inherently political

  1. Luther’s political ideas- he was an Early Modern character, who thought in terms very foreign got us
  2. He worked with the question of Authority, church or state? The question since Charlemagne
  3. Habsburg
  4. Charles V
    1. Rules the world
  5. Valois
  6. Francis I
    1. Calvin dedicated Institutes
  7. Ferdinand and Isabella
    1. The significance of the Iberian peninsula
    2. North Africa and Spain met
    3. A kind of “DMZ” where Muslim and Christian scholars met
  8. Henry VIII of the House of Tudor
    1. Interested in theology
    2. Really a political actor obsessed with questions of authority
    3. Break from Rome
    4. Lots of wives
    5. No surviving male heir
    6. Children
      1. Edward the sickly died
      2. Mary Tudor “Bloody Mary”
      3. Queen Elizabeth
  9. House of Stuart
    1. James VI/I

Papacy on the Eve of the Reformation

  1. “All reformation traditions”
  2. The issue, as always, was power and authority
  3. It would take an “enlightenment” to put things back together again


Session Three: Part Three

Popular Culture can be important and help us understand life and the church

  1. We can scoff at it as “low culture”
  2. Culture is a shared understanding of things which are:
    1. Visual
    2. Communal
    3. Symbolistic

Trying to understand the common people of the time

  1. Sacred and Secular often combined and distinctions dissolved.
  2. The Reformation is the triumph of Lent over Carnival

Reforming Morals

  1. Against claims that they were Antinomian

Reforming Literacy

  1. Woodcuts with few words, sometimes crass, still delivered a message
    1. Woodcut of Luther as saint
    2. What did it teach?
    3. Young Luther
    4. looks sainted
    5. See the dove and connection to the baptism of Jesus
    6. Stories told about the magical properties of this picture!

Question: What moved the common people?

  1. Music
  2. Subversive religious ideology
  3. A rebellious streak


Session Three: Part Four

The Reformation of Family

  1. Diffusely familial
  2. Relationships far beyond nuclear core, sometimes even with the dead
  1. The Reformers argues against prayers for the dead
  2. The pastoral couple
  3. Marriage as token of confessional
  4. Ignored sacramental elements
  5. Luther and Calvin highlighted secular elements of marriage
  6. Marriage was more allegory for Reformers
    1. Wedding homilies show the parallel to Christ
    2. They are great early modern records of popular belief
    3. Mutual aid and companionship stressed
    4. The women were in charge at home, the center of production
  7. To Reform the church, the Reformers would utilize a changing pictures of
    1. Family
    2. Morals
    3. Pop Culture