What We Will Learn Today
- The Three Questions we Ask
- The World Around 1500
- The Role of the Mongols
- Defining Our Terms
The Story of the Reformation and Martin Luther
People sometimes try to;
- Write Luther out of the narrative,
- Psychoanalyze him
- Or look for “real” causes
In the year 1517, Luther nails the 95 Theses to the door
- Or did he nail the theses?
- Does it Matter
- Not that controversial
Understanding The 95 Theses
- They don’t represent Luther’s mature theology
- Challenged the sources of revenue for Albrecht of Brandenburg
- Challenged a revenue source and authority!
- A theology of Humility
- (Magisterial doctrines??!?!)
- A theology of Repentance
- Not that controversial
- Luther argues against the church in reframing, interpreting “repentance”
Why did this one German monk cause a Reformation? Why did Luther’s reformation work?
- On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church
- Letter to the German Nobility
- On the Freedom of a Christian
Usually, you kill a heretic, why not Luther?
How did the Catholic Church approach the Luther issue?
- Kill him! Why not?
- Attack him on his own ground (using sola scriptura)
- Some argued from the Authority of the pope
- The question of authority!
The place of Printing
- 1500-1530 10,000 pamphlets
- 3/4 published between 1520 and 1526
- 1518-1544 250,000 editions not including Bible Translations
Why did Luther’s Reformation succeed? Because of The Printing Press
The Reformation also succeeded because of the political situation
- Frederick the Wise protected Luther
- Luther not just a theologian- maybe not treated as a theologian at all, rather he was seen as a prophet (spoke truth to power), pastor, preacher (expositor of Scripture)
- We will see the significance of the Small and Large Catechism
Small and Large Catechism
- Luther’s Small catechism taught a generation to think theologically
Session Two: Part Two
- Apologies and Confessions of Faith in the Reformation
- Not “I’m sorry” or “I did it” but rather a defense of the faith, and the faith itself as proclaimed by the community
- Confessions as old as the church- the 16th c. Saw a rebirth of confessions
- Augsburg Confession 1520
Confessions Across Europe
- 1534 Basel
- 1559 French
- 1560 Scots
- Almost like early constitutions
- Essential to good government
- 1517-1648 over 100 confessions of Faith
- Why is this significant?
- Sola Gratia
- Sola Fide
- Sola Scriptura
- Solus Christus
- Soli Deo Gloria
Understanding the 'Solas'
- The first three make up the heart of reformation theology
- Despite the vast differences in protestant thought, the solas unite them
The decrees of the Council of Trent
- A Catholic Reformation
- A new educational movement born out of the Reformation
Session Two: Part Three
The Lutherans and the Reformed
- Lord Supper
- The success or failure of the Reformation?
Luther thought he failed; did it?
- Church Unity- failure
- But another way? Church visitation records
- What were the Reformers responses?
- Why might these visitation records beg the question if something was wrong?
- Succeeded: reformed the way poke thought about the church and life together, theology, vocation, education, literacy, family life
- The English reformation
- More political than theological (Henry VIII)
- The Spanish and Italian reformations
- reformers and mystics
- Gustavus Adolphus
- A reformation from above
- From the peasants
- Wars of Religion
- Didn’t take hold initially
- With the example of Geneva a robust reformation project began
1517- 95 Theses
1617 - Europe getting ready for war
- Peace of Westphalia
Reviewing the figures
- French 1509 b. Noyon Lawyer, studied classics and humanism, All Saints day Speech condemning French church and Calvin fled to Geneva
- Geneva= experiment of church and state taken to the Netherlands and Massachusetts bay Colony
- John Calvin - Institutes of Christian Religion
- But commentaries more significant as he was primarily a pastor.
- See Bruce Gordon
- Philip Melanchthon
If Luther was the prophet, Melanchthon was the theologian/philosopher
Theodore Beza: Often criticized, but the most influential reformer with regards to forming theology and reforming education
- An academic like Melanchthon, helped reformation Theology